a complex scientific approach
Long term energy planning is the systematic process through which national or local objectives, policies and long-term investment plans are derived from scientific models of the energy industry, most often aided by the applied modeling of specific energy scenarios. It can either be descriptive, that is, it describes what the energy industry does on a day-to-day basis and/or prescriptive, that is, it provides recommendations as to how the energy industry should be structured in the future. Examples of prescriptive energy planning include: electricity rate schedules, fuel regulations, fuel price ceilings, and the building codes enforced against construction and operation of facilities. On the other hand, a prescriptive energy plan is often the product of a complex scientific approach coupled with a detailed market analysis.
A key component of energy planning involves identifying and describing energy sources and fuels as well as their potential energy sources and uses. These alternative sources and fuels are analyzed in relation to the energy demand, the climate, technology and economic viability, and the security of energy supplies. A variety of fuel types and fuels are evaluated in terms of their energy supply potential, their environmental impact, and their price competitiveness. The sources and fuels selected for energy planning also depend on the role of these energies in the economy and the viability of their use as a competitive source of energy. One important issue to consider here is how different energy sources and fuels will be deployed economically, since all sources and fuels will have both negative and positive impacts on the economy, national security, and the environment.
integrated long-term strategy
In addition to energy planning scenarios, an integrated long-term strategy must address the various mitigation strategies needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of emissions depends both on technological developments that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and changes in behaviour that encourage better energy efficiency. Strategies for mitigation should be both effective and economical. Mitigation strategies include: improving energy efficiency by improving buildings and equipment, energy efficient appliances and vehicles, and construction and improvement of facilities such as water treatment and distribution systems.
Renewable energy is another important strategy for long-term energy planning scenarios. This includes the development of new green technologies for the sectors such as electricity, transportation, and manufacturing that can contribute to renewable energy growth. A number of renewable technologies are currently being developed. Examples of renewable technologies include biofuels, solar panels, wind turbines, geothermal heat pumps, tidal energy, and microhydropower.
renewable energy planning
Another part of long-term renewable energy planning involves capacity building. Capability building involves the development of new facilities and capacity by engaging a wide range of parties. This can involve the private sector through public-private partnerships, the public sector through local, state, and federal government agencies, and Indigenous groups through aboriginal communities. The objective of capacity building is to ensure the adequate and efficient deployment of energy, especially of non-renewable energy sources. Examples of such capacity facilities include power plants, transmission lines, and integrated circuit networks.
Last but not least, there is also the matter of increasing energy efficiency. The adoption of energy efficiency in the economy targets two major objectives. First, it seeks to reduce the amount of energy waste that occurs as a result of inefficient use, inefficient operation, and operation of infrastructure. Second, it seeks to make the most of the opportunities provided by existing energy efficiency standards.